Toyota RAV4 EV Technical Specification
Excerpts from Technical Specification for 1988 Toyota RAV4-EV with NiMH Batteries
This document was prepared with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Award No. DE-FC07-96ID 13475. Full version of this specification is published by U.S. Department of Energy – Idaho National Laboratory @ http://avt.inl.gov/pdf/fsev/eva/toyrav98.pdf (Accessed 4/19/09)
Base Vehicle: 1998 Toyota RAV4
Seatbelt Positions: Five
AM/FM Stereo Radio
Tilt Steering Wheel
Air Conditioning (Gas Injection Heat Pump)
Heater (Gas Injection Heat Pump)
Front Wheel Drive Dual Air Bags
Power Steering (Rack & Pinion, hydraulic)
Four Wheel Disc Brakes
Four Wheel Anti-Lock Brakes
Regenerative Braking Power Windows
Space Saver Spare
Low Rolling Resistance Tires
Manufacturer: Panasonic Type: Nickel Metal Hydride
Number of Modules: 24
Weight of Module: 18.75 kg
Weight of Pack(s): 461 kg
Pack Locations: Underbody
Nominal Module Voltage: 12 V
Nominal System Voltage: 288 V
Nominal Capacity (C/3): 95 Ah
Design Curb Weight: 3480 lbs
Delivered Curb Weight: 3507 lbs
Distribution F/R: 52/48%
GVWR: 4266 lbs
GAWR F/R: 2138/2 128 lbs
Payload: 786 lbs 
Performance Goal: 600 lbs
Wheelbase: 94.6 inches
Track F/R: 57. 6/56.9 inches
Length: 156.6 inches
Width: 67.1 inches
Height: 65.0 inches
Ground Clearance: 6.7 inches at GVWR
Performance Goal: 5.0 inches at GVWR
Location: On-board w/Off-Board PCS Type: Conductive
Input Voltages: 90 to 264 VAC
Tire Mfg: Bridgestone
Tire Model: Ecopia EPO2 Radial Tire Size: 195/80R16
Tire Pressure F/R: 44/44 psi Spare Installed: Yes
ACCELERATION 0-50 mph
At 100% SOC: 12.8 sec
At 50% SOC: 12.9 sec
Max. Power: 57.3 kW
Performance Goal: 13.5 sec at 50% SOC
MAXIMUM SPEED @ 50% SOC
At 1/4 Mile: 63.5 mph
At 1 Mile: 78.8 mph
Performance Goal: 70 mph in one mile
CONSTANT SPEED RANGE @ 45 mph
Range: 110.9 miles
Energy Used: 23.34 kWh
Average Power: 9.55 kW
Efficiency: 210 Wh/mile
Specific Energy: 50.8 Wh/kg
CONSTANT SPEED RANGE @ 60 mph
Range: 86.9 miles
Energy Used: 27.47 kWh
Average Power: 18.81 kW
Efficiency: 316 Wh/mile
Specific Energy: 59.6 Wh/kg
DRIVING CYCLE RANGE ,
Range per SAE J1634: 94.0 miles
Energy Used: 23.01 kWh
Average Power: 6.88 kW
Efficiency: 245 Wh/mile
Specific Energy: 49.9 Wh/kg
Performance Goal: 60 miles
BRAKING FROM 60 mph
Controlled Dry: 157.0 feet
Controlled Wet: 183.2 feet
Panic Wet: 200.1 feet
Course Deviation: 0.0 feet
Avg Time @ 90% SOC: 59.8 sec
Avg Time @ 50% SOC: 58.8 sec
Avg Time @ 20% SOC: 58.8 sec
Avg S-10 ICE Time: 59.8 sec
Maximum Speed @ 3%: 75.4 mph
Maximum Speed @ 6%: 63.6 mph
Maximum Grade: 30.2%
Time on 3% Grade: 21 min 37 sec3
Performance Goal: 15 Min from 50% SOC
Max Charger Ground Current: <0.01 mA
Max Battery Leakage Current: 0.01 MIU
Max DC Charge Current: 14.51 Amps
Max AC Charge Current: 26.25 Amps
Pwr Factor @ Max Current: 0.828 THD(I) @ Max Current: 8.26%
Peak Demand: 4.45 kW-AC
Time to Recharge: 6 Hrs 47 min Performance Goal: 8 hours
This vehicle meets the following EW America Minimum Requirements:
Vehicle has a payload of at least 400 pounds.
The OEM GVWR has not been increased.
The OEM GAWRs have not been increased.
Seating capacity is a least two (2) occupants.
A battery recycling plan has been submitted.
The OEM passenger space has not been intruded upon by the electrical conversion materials.
The vehicle has a parking mechanism or parking brake as required by 49 CFR 571.105.
The vehicle has a minimum range between charges of at least 50 miles when loaded with two 166- pound occupants and operated at a constant 45 mph.
The vehicle manufacturer has certified that this vehicle complies with the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) applicable on the date of manufacture.
The vehicle manufacturer has certified the batteries and battery enclosures comply with SAE J1766 and 49 CFR 571.301.
Batteries comply with the requirements of SAE J1 718 and NEC 625 for charging in enclosed spaces without vent fans.
The vehicle manufacturer has certified that concentrations of explosive gases in the battery box do not exceed 25% of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) during and following normal or abnormal charging and operation of the vehicle.
The battery charger is capable of recharging the main propulsion batteries to a state of full charge from any state of discharge in less than 12 hours.
The vehicle manufacturer has certified the charger is capable of accepting input voltages of 208V and 240V single phase 60 Hertz alternating current service, with a tolerance of 10% of rated voltage. Charger input current is compatible with the requirements for Level II chargers and complies with the requirements of SAE J1 772. Personnel protection systems are in accordance with UL Proposed Standards 2231-1 and 2231-2.
The charger has a true power factor of .95 or greater and a harmonic distortion rated at < 20% (current at rated load).
The charger is fully automatic, determining when “end of charge” conditions are met and transitioning into a mode that maintains the main propulsion battery at a full state of charge while not overcharging it, if continuously left on charge.
The vehicle does not contain exposed conductors, terminals, contact blocks or devices of any type that create the potential for personnel to be exposed to 50 volts or greater.
The vehicle will be accompanied by non-proprietary manuals for parts, service, operation, maintenance, interconnection wiring diagrams and schematics.
The vehicle has a state of charge indicator for the main propulsion batteries.
Propulsion power is isolated from the vehicle chassis and battery leakage is less than 0.5 MIU under static conditions.
Charging circuits are isolated from the vehicle chassis such that ground current from the grounded chassis any time the vehicle is connected to a charger does not exceed 5 mA in accordance with UL Proposed Standards 223 1-1 and 223 1-2.
Replacement tires are commercially available to the end user.
The vehicle is interlocked such that:
The controller does not energize to move the vehicle with the gear selector in any position other than “Park” or “Neutral”
The start key is removable only when the “ignition key” is in the “Off” position, with the drive selector in “Park”
The controller does not initially energize or excite with a pre-existing accelerator input, such that the vehicle can be moved under its own power from this condition
The vehicle manufacturer has certified that the vehicle complies with the FCC requirements for unintentional emitted electromagnetic radiation, as identified in 47 CFR 15, Subpart B, “Unintentional Radiators.”
The vehicle manufacturer has certified failure of a battery or battery pack has deemed to have occurred if the actual battery capacity is not at least 80% of the nominal ampere hour capacity.
This vehicle is equipped with an automatic disconnect and a manual service disconnect.
The charging system is compatible with the Personnel Protection requirements of SAE J1 772.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) have been supplied for all on-board batteries.
The level of charge below which the batteries should not be discharged and how the controller automatically limits battery discharge below this level have been identified by the manufacturer.
The vehicle manufacturer has verified that the method(s) of charging the propulsion batteries and the charging algorithm have been reviewed and approved by the battery manufacturer.
The charger is capable of meeting the requirements of Section 625 of the National Electric Code (NEC).
The vehicle complies with the requirements of 49 CFR 571.301 for fuel fired heaters.
The vehicle has an on-board Battery Energy Management System (BMS).
 Design payload value; value as delivered (and tested) was 759 lbs.
 This vehicle requires a Power Control Station (PCS), which cannot be used with a GFCI protected circuit.
 All testing was terminated upon receipt of the Flaching SOC telltale.
 Total range achieved until vehicle could not maintain profile was 116.9 miles.